Adrenalina Tours

Adrenalina Tours

digital library 02 September 2016

Economics and Prestige in a Maya Community

This book is the first of several that will result from work sponsored by the Harvard Chiapas Project. The Project was initiated in 1957 and will continue in the decs,des to come to study a variety of ethnographic and social anthropological problems in the Highland Maya area of the Tzotzil and Tzeltal Indians of Southern Mexico. These Indian communities in the high, pine-covered mountains of central Chiapas constitute one of the most interesting surviving pockets of American Indian culture in the New World, and hence provide a field site of major importance for the development and testing of new methods for ethnographic description and for the analysis of the processes of change.

 

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digital library 02 September 2016

Western Hegemony in Archaeological Heritage Management

Western Hegemony in Archaeological Heritage Management
Denis Byrne
Australian National University
In 1981 and 1982 two consecutive numbers of the journal World Archaeology were devoted to the development in various parts of the world of regionally distinctive traditions of archaeological research. The editors (Trigger and Glover 1981) were sceptical of the prospects of a single theoretically and methodologically 'correct' approach, such as that advocated by the American processual school, taking hold globally. They and others of the authors showed how the modern study of archaeology had developed in Europe and been exported as part of the baggage of colonialism throughout the world in the nineteenth century. It had then been molded by the unique social conditions of the recipient countries, had been used in the service of a great many regimes and political ideologies, and had taken on the particular national and regional styles which we now see in places like India, Australasia, South America, Japan and Vietnam.

 

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digital library 02 September 2016

THE FLOWERING OF THE DEAD: AN INTERPRETATION OF HIGHLAND MAYA CULTURE

This article considers important yet unresolved questions concerning the relationship of ancient with contemporary Maya culture. Following a review of the relevant literature, data are discussed from three sources: (a) the contemporary Tzutujil Maya of Santiago Atitlan, Guatemala; (b) the ancient Maya text Popol Vuh, and (c) the Maya Classic period site of Palenque, Mexico. It is argued that although salient aspects of contemporary Tzutujil culture derive fromi the incorporation of non-Maya elemen-ts, they have nevertheless been in-corporated according to charactenrstically Maya paradigms. The resultant changes reflect Tzutujil adaptations to an open environment, adaptations that have allowed both cultural stability and continuity

 

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digital library 02 September 2016

Economics and Prestige in a Maya Community

The data on which this study is based were gathered in Zinacantan, a township of Tzotzil-speaking Maya Indians in the Mexican state of Chiapas, Between August 1960 and August 1962, 18 months were spent in the field. The research was done as part of the Harvard Chiapas Project, which is directed by Professor Evon Z. Vogt, and the first year of fieldwork was supported by funds from Grant MH-2100 made to the project by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). The project is sponsored by the Laboratory of Social Relations and the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard University, and by the Instituto Nacional Indigenista in Mexico.

 

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digital library 02 September 2016

lost and found: NAGPRA, Scattered Relics, and Restorative Methodologies

His research examines the disarticulation of Native American funerary assemblages in museum collections and highlights the challenges of identifying them for inventories mandated by the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) of 1990. Indigenous objects and human remains from burial sites were routinely subjected to collecting and sorting procedures that stripped them of meaning and context. NAGPRA does not, however, require museums to reassemble sites or locate related materials housed in other institutions. As a result, associated funerary objects and human remains can easily be ‘‘lost’’ in collections and tribal representatives may be unable to find them. This paper samples the evidence from the Middle Connecticut River Valley to illustrate how items were routinely excavated and categorized and proposes a few restorative methodologies for their recovery. [Keywords: NAGPRA, Native American, funerary objects, museum collections, human remain

 

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digital library 02 September 2016

The Spiritual Life of Contemporary Highland Maya on Volcanoes and Other Sacred Places in Guatemala

‘Before this eruption (of the Santa María volcano), God came to the world. He was  the same as an Indian, and wore the clothes of an Indian. He knew the language of all the pueblos in the world. One time God met Juan Noq on a road on the side of Santa María. Juan Noq thought that God was an ordinary Indian. Juan invited God to come see his house, but God knew that he wanted him to come there to work. God was smarter than Juan Noq, so he went with him. Inside of the volcano, they sat down in al large room and soon Juan called many helpers to come kill God, but God was very smart and set fire to the large house.

 

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digital library 02 September 2016

RITUALES DE HETZMEK EN YUCATÁN

ABSTRACT: In this paper we review, systematize and analyze the studies that have been done on rituals of hetzmek in Yucatán, as a starting point for subsequent ethnographic research on this topic. We are interested in examining how these rituals have been analyzed and interpreted. Our focus is on: a) the assumptions that have been made about the ritual’s origin, b) the theoretical problems within which it has been studies, c) the functions and purposes scholars have assigned to it, and d) how they have interpreted it. We start by presenting a description based on its ideal form and common characteristics in order for the reader to understand what the ritual consists of. Finally, we discuss some methodological points and make recommendations for future analyses of this ritual.

 

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digital library 02 September 2016

VENUS AND THE CODEX GROLIER

Even though the Maya codices kept at Dresden, Paris and Madrid have not been fully deciphered or understood, they have nonetheless played a vital role in the history of our knowledge of the Maya. Their study, which commenced in the XIX century, has permitted considerable progress to be made in areas such as the calendar, astronomy, astrology, religion and deciphering writing. The extraordinary scarcity of Maya manuscripts is truly deplorable and indeed surprising, because ethnohistorical sources speak of their relative abundance at the time of the Conquest.

 

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digital library 02 September 2016

The First Twenty-Three Pages of the Dresden Codex: The Divination Pages

by Edwin L. Barnhart
Contained within the first twenty-three pages of the Dresden Codex are fifty two almanacs. Once used to divine the future, they are now enigmatic expressions of a past era. The almanacs are based on the 260-day ritual calendar, a method of divination still used today by Maya day keepers on the Guatemalan Highlands. While the Dresden Codex as a whole has been studied for more than one hundred years, the first fifty two almanacs are the least investigated. This report provides a commentary for each almanac individually, discussing hieroglyphs, associated images, and day name computations. The almanacs are also viewed as a whole.

 

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digital library 02 September 2016

Architectural Images of Time THE RUINS AT BONAMPAK

THE RUINS AT BONAMPAK One of the outcomes of events like those set forth in the omens in the Venus table is elaborately depicted in a mural painting found in the ruins of Bonampak deep in the rain forest of the central Yucatan peninsula. When first discovered over a generation ago, these colorful images provided some of the earliest evidence that the Maya were not the loving pacifists our scholarly predecessors once made them out to be. The Bonampak wall paintings are about war, not peace. Calcareous deposits that had dripped down onto them have sealed and preserved the delicate thousand-year-old record of a battle said to have taken place exactly when Venus was in its most auspicious aspect for the conduct of war.

 

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